Waste – is the amount of remains from something that has no certain value. The waste is normally created during the processing and transformation of substances and forms of energy.
Two types of waste are distinguished in everyday life: industrial and manufactory. The waste can cause damages to health and life of people because it stimulates diseases. The smell and the appearance have effect not only on land but also on environment in general, on air and water.
The average amount of waste per capita within one year is calculated by calculating the overall amount of waste in cubic meters per the total number of population.
The biggest polluters are considered mercury, cadmium, substances containing arsenic and different organic and biologic bonds that are difficult to dissolve (for example the disintegration organic bonds with large amounts of chlorine) or substances that can cause cancer (for example flammable substances with benzene as their base) and problematic waste (for example waste of houses, hospitals, slaughterhouses).
Another problem is the waste that is produced every day and is not treated adequately, thus posing continuous threat to entire society, such as:
- Used oils especially those containing PCB, PCT and PBB;
- Hospital, infective, animal waste, expired medicine;
- Covering of dangerous substances;
- Rubber and plastic waste;
- Electric and electronic waste;
- Expired pesticides, etc.
The law on waste was ratified and its goal is the protection of human’s health and environment from the pollution and from hazardous waste, by creating conditions for the prevention and reduction of waste production and their danger, especially through:
- Development of clean technologies and their efficient use,
- Development and use of product that from their production nature and final deposition are designed to reduce the waste sensitivity and danger from pollution.
- Development of appropriate techniques for final deposition of dangerous substances containing waste that is possible to be processed.
- Processing of waste by recycling, reusing or another process used for extraction of secondary matters.
- Use of waste as source of energy, and
- Cleaning of the places polluted from waste.
The reduction of source means the efficient use of natural resources, planned reduction of unnecessary productions, i.e. low waste of energy. The users should take the opportunity of reusing and recycling the packaging.
Some products are designed in a manner that can be used several times. The reuse of plastic bags or glass are the most common examples. There are some reasons why the products are reused:
- Saving in energy and raw material;
- Reduction of storage expenses;
- Reduction of expenses for traders and consumers
Recycling is a process where technical, ecological, and economic effects are created. The importance lies on the drastic reduction of the amount of industrial and public waste that is deposited. This will extend the life of depositions and minimize the risk to health and environment, as well as reduce the use of natural resources, and save time and energy.
Based on the composition of the public waste it was ascertained that 35-45% is organic waste. Therefore, we recommend the conservation and fermentation of organic waste as very simple processes that draw multiple benefits.
In Kosovo there are no special depositions for dangerous waste. A part of the dangerous waste is thrown in regional depositions. Illegal depositions are another problem, and currently they are out of the control of regular management and in violation of the standards for environment protection.